IUPAC name (3R,4R,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexan-2-one, it has been evaluated by the US Food Navigator as the most promising alternative to sucrose, with special functions for regulating blood sugar and other health benefits. It has been evaluated by the US Food Navigator as the most promising alternative to sucrose. It is mainly prepared by the enzyme fixation and transformation method, i.e. the enzyme is cloned, expressed, isolated and refined, and then transformed by fixation in an appropriate vector.
Allulose is used in adult diseases with high blood glucose values and has an important role in preventing adult diseases and maintaining appropriate blood glucose values.
Allulose, a six-carbon rare ketose with almost zero calories, was fused to the D-allulose 3-differential isomerase (CCDPEase) with sesquiterpene oilbody protein and heterologously expressed in E.coli as an insoluble protein, and the inclusion body protein was further mixed with triglycerides and phospholipids to construct ArtificialOilBodies (AOBs) . In the AOBs the lipophilic part of the Oleosin oil protein is embedded in the triglyceride nucleus region, the CCDPEase enzyme protein is fused to the arm of the AOBs composed of amphiphilic molecules and displayed on the surface of the AOBs, and the CCDPEase target enzyme protein molecule exerts its biotransformation function by natural folding when the fusion is fixed.
Effects of D-Allulose on lipid metabolism
Hossain et al. added 5% allulose to the drinking water of spontaneously type 2 diabetic OLETF (Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty) rats and found significantly lower abdominal fat and body fat weight and smaller adipocytes in rats than in controls after 13 weeks of feeding. The addition of different doses of D-allulose to the normal diet of high-fat diet-induced obese rats revealed a reduction in body weight and body fat accumulation compared to the control group, and the degree of reduction showed a dose-dependent relationship for allulose. The rats fed 3% allulose for 4 weeks showed significantly lower serum insulin and leptin levels, lower lipid synthesis enzyme activity in the liver and higher lipid oxidase expression levels.
Effect of D-Allulose on blood glucose metabolism
Several studies have shown that D-Allulose has hypoglycaemic effects. Male rats were fed sucrose, maltose or soluble starch, while D-allulose or D-fructose was added in parts per thousand. It was found that allulose could suppress the concentration of glucose in the plasma; in rats, it was found that allulose was orally absorbed into the blood through the small intestine and then excreted by the kidneys without causing fluctuations in blood glucose, and could also inhibit the activity of alpha-glucosidase.
Anti-diabetic mechanism of D-allulose
In the OLETF rat study conducted by Hossain et al, postprandial glycaemia, body weight and fat were effectively controlled in the alloxan group. Immunohistochemical results showed that alloxan induced hepatic glucokinase expression, thereby increasing hepatic glycogen synthesis. Further studies revealed that alloxan slowed down fibrosis in β islet cells. Extending the experiment to 60 weeks, it was found that the anti-diabetic effect of D-allulose was mainly achieved by maintaining blood glucose levels, reducing weight gain, controlling postprandial glucose, reducing inflammatory responses and lowering glycated haemoglobin levels. 
Main values edit Podcast
Allulose (D-psicose) is a six-carbon sugar found in very low levels in nature and is a differential isomer of the C-3 site of D-fructose. d-Allulose is difficult to digest and absorb and provides little energy for vital activities, making it a very useful low-calorie sweetener. In the field of medicine and health, D-allulose inhibits fatty liver enzymes and intestinal alpha-glucosidase, thereby reducing the accumulation of body fat and suppressing the rise in blood glucose concentration. iida and Hayashi found that dietary addition of D-allulose reduced the postprandial glycaemic response and improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. In addition, D-allulose was more effective in scavenging reactive oxygen radicals compared to other rare sugars. In mouse tests, D-allulose was found to prevent testicular damage induced by bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalic acid by inhibiting allulose supplier the production of reactive oxygen species. In addition D-allulose had a neuroprotective effect against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis and also inhibited the expression of the monocyte chemotactic protein MCP-1 induced by high glucose concentrations. This predicts a potential function of D-Allulose in the treatment of diseases related to neurodegeneration and atherosclerosis.
For adult diseases with high blood glucose values: blood glucose is the glucose in the blood. Once carbohydrates and granulated sugar are consumed with meals, the blood sugar level rises. This is the internal operating tissue necessary to maintain the animal’s survival. Excessive amounts of glucose and fructose can cause hyperglycaemia, at which point it evolves into a dangerous preparatory army for diabetes. In addition, the remainder of the glucose is absorbed by the gut and turns into fat, which when accumulated can cause obesity. In order to prevent adult-onset disease, it is very important to maintain an appropriate blood sugar level.
Structure for suppressing the rise in blood glucose through alloxan
Structure for suppressing the rise in blood sugar through alloxan
In food applications, D-allulose is considered to be one of the most desirable alternatives to sucrose due to its high sweetness, good solubility, low calorie and low glycaemic response. The addition of D-Allulose to food products not only improves its gelling properties, but also improves its flavour by viral reaction with food proteins. Compared to D-fructose and D-glucose, D-allo ketose produces more antioxidant melad reaction products and maintains antioxidant levels in foods for longer periods of time. 2011, D-allo ketose was certified safe by the FDA for use as an additive in food and dietary applications.
Allulose is a zero fat sugar that relieves the rise in blood sugar after eating and is 70% as sweet as granulated sugar with high solubility. Because of this property, it is particularly suitable for food processing. Aloinose has a variety of properties and characteristics that are increasingly expected in the production of high quality food products that are highly effective in preventing adult diseases and are loved by people.
I. Sweetness values for various sugars with sucrose at 100
Allulose: 70; glucose: 60; alginate: 45; fructose: 120 to 170.
II. Calorie values (for adults)
Allulose: ≦0.39 kcal; sucrose: 4 kcal; fructose: 4 kcal; glucose: 4 kcal.
III. Maximum non-effective dose to human body using palliation as an indicator
Allulose: male 0.5g, female 0.6g; xylitol: 0.3g; reduced paragine: 0.3g.
IV. mg/100g of sugars when added to food after heating (average intake of about 0.2g in 1 day)
Caramel: 82.5; Worcester Hot Sauce: 129.8; Maple Syrup: 57.6; Coke: 38.1.
Rare sugars such as allulose do not only have an effect on animals, but studies have shown that they also have a significant effect on plants. Kagawa University’s Faculty of Agriculture is conducting research on how much of the rare sugar can be used to induce and discover pest and disease resistance genes in crops such as rice, and whether it has a regulatory effect on plant growth. We are also developing materials that can induce disease tolerance and fertility regulation in plants, and are studying how they can be used.
In order to be practical, Kagawa University is developing agricultural materials in collaboration with private companies. This project to develop agricultural materials is expected to use pure natural substances and edible sugars from nature to create pesticides that are beneficial to humans and the environment from a safety perspective. This is unprecedented.
The rattle spurge is a very valuable plant that can produce and store its own allulose. There is a not so obvious reason for this – the fallen leaves of the rattle spurge containing allulose inhibit the growth of other plants around it and the spurge can thus create a good reproductive environment for itself. The rat spurge, which has escaped natural elimination and is able to produce its own stores of scarce sugars, has been called the “coelacanth (living fossil) of the plant world”, presumably using this particular method to overcome the challenge of survival.
Advances in the biosynthesis of D-allulose Editorial Podcast
In 1990, Izumori’s team at Kagawa University, Japan, discovered that the alkali-producing bacterium A1caligenes sp. could produce D-allulose, opening the way for the biological preparation of D-allulose. The discovery by Izumori’s group that the alkali-producing bacterium A1caligenes sp. The biotransformation method has gradually become the main strategy for the production of D-allulose due to the advantages of a single reaction and simple purification steps. Among them, ketose 3-differential isomerase is an important catalyst for the biotransformation of D-allulose, which can catalyse the interconversion between D-fructose and D-allulose (Figure 2) and between D-tagatose and D-sorbose. Different microbial sources of isomerases have different substrate specificities and are mainly classified as: D-tagatose 3-epimerase (DTEase) and D-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase). Table 1 summarises the reactions of ketose 3-differential isomerase from different strain sources.