For most students of mechanical majors in colleges and universities, the professional courses to be learned are difficult and of various types: including electric control, mechanical design, mechanical technology, gas-hydraulic transmission, etc..
Therefore, many colleges and universities divide mechanical students into classes according to the direction after the second year of college, and choose electromechanical direction, mechanism direction, machine design direction and vehicle direction according to students’ interests and expertise.
Among them, machinery manufacturing technology is the main course of the mechanism direction, while for the other directions is a secondary course. This course mainly introduces the knowledge of mechanical process, including: mechanical processing methods, metal cutting principles, machine tools, tools, fixtures; manufacturing quality analysis and control; process protocol design and advanced manufacturing technology.
Through the study of the course, students can improve their engineering awareness and mechanical literacy, as the course is closely integrated with the practical content of production, it also has a good role in improving the practical ability of students.
However, because the future employment content and focus of each direction are somewhat different, because in addition to grasp the focus of the course itself, should pay attention to the characteristics of students in different directions, to achieve the target.
1 Teaching content
First of all, in the classroom teaching process, we should firmly grasp the inner connection between each chapter and knowledge points, so that students can have a comprehensive understanding of the knowledge structure and central content, and integrate.
For example, when explaining the knowledge of machine tools, the knowledge of tools and fixtures in other chapters should be combined to make students understand what kind of fixtures can be used for clamping and what kind of tools can be used for machining in the corresponding machine tools.
In this way, when it comes specifically to the chapter on tools and fixtures, the students’ knowledge structure will be more systematic and it will be easier to grasp the machining process
In addition, attention should also be paid to the focus of teaching students in different directions. For non-machine building students, the course is a tool course that provides the principles and methods of machining, similar to the role of higher mathematics and physics.
Therefore, its content is application-oriented and should not allow theorems, inferences and other proof processes to take up a large share of the teaching content. This will not only make students feel intimidated, but also neglect the understanding and mastery of key contents and knowledge structure.
For example, for students of mechanical and electrical engineering, when teaching manufacturing quality analysis and control, more attention should be paid to the methods of analysis, which testing techniques can be used to measure machining quality, the selection of different machining quality sensors, etc.; while for students of mechanical manufacturing and mechanical design, the rigidity of the process system, the machining quality problems caused by For students of mechanical engineering and mechanical design, the focus should be on the stiffness of the process system and the processing methods that cause processing quality problems.
In this way, the course can be better integrated with the students’ professional orientation, so that they can really apply what they have learned.
Secondly, in terms of experimental teaching, the differences of students in different directions should be fully considered, and the corresponding experimental projects should be selected for different directions.
For example, for the students in the direction of machinery manufacturing in our school, the experimental items we offer are the experiment of measuring the angle of turning tools and the preparation of process procedures for shaft parts, which pay more attention to the mastering of the basic knowledge and principles of the course;
while for the students of electromechanics, the experimental items we choose are the experiment of measuring the cutting force and the experiment of testing the geometric accuracy of CA6140 lathe, which pay more attention to the students’ mastering of the testing technology and circuit principles. mastery.
In addition, we set up compulsory and optional teaching modules. In addition to the traditional important and difficult contents as compulsory modules, some knowledge points will be set up as elective modules.
Students with the same elective content should be grouped together, and when teaching the elective content, students should give full play to their initiative and ask more open-ended questions, so that they can discuss and study together in the group and finally solve the problems to achieve the flexible application of knowledge.
2 Teaching methods
In the actual teaching process, the choice of teaching methods is especially important because this course has more chapters and contents but less amount of class time. Especially now that the local government has put more emphasis on the creation of application-oriented universities, the teaching reform should also highlight the practicality of the course, and the teaching methods should be adjusted accordingly. After classroom teaching and summary, I believe that the following teaching methods are more suitable for the teaching of this course: First, the emphasis on “direct sensory-based methods”, including the demonstration method and the visit method.
For example, when explaining the geometric angle of a tool and its reference system, the teacher can demonstrate the tool in hand and give the students groups to find the tool together. The teaching effect is much better than the boring lecture and drawing.
For example, in the explanation of machine tools, you can organize a visit to the school factory or laboratory, also better than the introduction of machine structure and function of the teaching effect.
Second, adhere to the “guided inquiry-based approach”, such as the discovery method, inquiry method. The teacher should design the teaching line according to the teaching objectives when preparing the lesson, and gradually guide the students to carry out divergent thinking, so that students can take the initiative in the process of active thinking and exploration in the classroom .
For example, when explaining the part of process system stiffness, the question can be thrown out first: which is more prone to machining errors when machining long and slender shafts or short and thick shafts.
The concept of process system stiffness can be introduced through students’ answers and analysis of the answers to explain the correct answer, as well as the reasons for the wrong answer. In this process, the students engage in sufficient thinking, so the teaching effect is better than the traditional method of flat out narration. For example, in the chapter on advanced manufacturing technology, the course team used the method of having students of each optional module collect information and send a representative to the podium to explain the module in charge of the group, while the teacher and other groups of students asked questions.
It is similar to the process of independent research and defense discussion in the graduation design and course design process. This method stimulates students’ interest and initiative to a great extent, and the information collected by students in a group appears to be more comprehensive and informative, and also enhances (continued from page 27) (continued from page 46) students’ collective consciousness and sense of cooperation.
3 Grade evaluation
The traditional way of evaluating the grades of basic mechanical engineering courses in engineering colleges is based on the final closed-book examination, and students often think that they do not need to pay attention to the learning process, but only need to hold the Buddha’s feet before the examination. In fact, for this practice-oriented course, this idea is likely to cause students to memorize the so-called test points, but the phenomenon of poor practical application.
In response to this problem, we tackle it from two aspects:
First, increase the proportion of experiments in the assessment of grades, and strengthen the examination of students’ practical experimental ability. In the assessment of experimental grades teachers should focus on the practical ability of students to grade, rather than simply to score the experimental report. Instead, a combination of open-book and closed-book exams is used. In addition to the traditional final exam, add accompanying exams to make students’ classroom attention more focused and enhance the effectiveness of classroom teaching, continue the traditional closed-book exams to test students’ understanding and mastery of concepts and theories, and add open-book exams to test students’ application and thinking creativity.
For example, the chapter of process design, because the chapter knowledge involves a lot of content that needs to look up the table, so it is not suitable for closed-book exams, so you can put forward a part of the process design problem at the end of the chapter as a small open-book exam, so that students in the process of consulting books and materials to learn the practical application of knowledge, but also play a stage test and check the role of the gaps. In addition, because of the establishment of compulsory and elective modules in the teaching content, emphasis should be placed on the knowledge of compulsory modules to be examined in the final closed-book examination, while the knowledge of elective modules should be grouped according to students’ elective content and examined in the form of group project research and submission of large assignments.
The development of the times has put forward new requirements for the creation of an applied university, and the traditional form of teaching machine building technology courses is no longer able to meet the actual requirements of teaching at this stage. “Practice and application” is the ultimate goal of teaching and learning, and the differences in teaching methods for students of different majors should be given sufficient attention, so the teaching reform should be aimed at improving and reforming the teaching content, methods, and performance evaluation methods, so as to improve the quality of classroom teaching.
Therefore, the teaching reform should be aimed at improving and reforming the teaching content, methods and grading methods, so as to improve the quality of classroom teaching, and really let students achieve the teaching goal of applying what they have learned and using it.